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Full Story Of Mahabharata.


The Mahabharata (Sanskrit: महाभारत) is an ancient literary work that is said to have been written by Begawan Byasa or Vyasa from India. This book consists of eighteen books, so it is called Astadasaparwa (asta = 8, dasa = 10, parwa = books). However, there are also those who believe that this story is actually a collection of many stories that were originally scattered, collected since the 4th century BC. Briefly, Mahabharata tells the story of the conflict between the five Pandavas and their cousins ​​who are one hundred Koravas, regarding the dispute over the land rights of the state of Astina. The climax was the Bharatayuddha war on the Kurusetra field and the battle lasted eighteen days.

Apart from containing stories of heroism (wiracarita), the Mahabharata also contains Hindu values, mythology and various other clues. Therefore, the Mahabharata story is sacred, especially by Hindus. The story, which was originally written in Sanskrit, was later copied into various languages, especially following the development of Hindu civilization in the past in Asia, including in Southeast Asia.

In Indonesia, copies of various parts of the Mahabharata, such as Adiparwa, Wirataparwa, Bhismaparwa and possibly several other parwa, are known to have been composed in prose in Kawi (Old Javanese) since the end of the 10th century AD. Namely during the reign of king Dharmawangsa Teguh (991-1016 AD) from Kadiri. Because of this nature, this form of prose is also known as parwa literature.


What was especially popular in later times was the composition of the story in the form of kakawin, namely old poetry with Indian metrums in Old Javanese. One of the famous ones is kakawin Arjunawiwaha (Arjunawiwāha, Arjuna marriage) composed by mpu Kanwa. The work, which is thought to have been written between 1028-1035 AD (Zoetmulder, 1984) was dedicated to King Airlangga of the Medang Kamulan kingdom, son-in-law of King Dharmawangsa.

Another well-known literary work is the Kakawin Bharatayuddha, composed by mpu Sedah and later completed by mpu Panuluh (Panaluh). This kakawin was dedicated to Prabu Jayabhaya (1135-1157 AD), written around the end of the reign of the king of Daha (Kediri). Apart from that, mpu Panuluh also wrote kakawin Hariwangśa during the Jayabaya period, and is also thought to have composed Gaţotkacāśraya during the time of king Kertajaya (1194-1222 AD) of Kediri.


Several other kakawin descended from the Mahabharata are also important to mention, including Kŗşņāyana (by mpu Triguna) and Bhomāntaka (unknown author) both from the era of the Kediri kingdom, and Pārthayajña (mpu Tanakung) at the end of the Majapahit era. Copies of ancient manuscripts written on palm leaves are also known to be stored in Bali.

In addition, these literary masterpieces also develop and provide inspiration for various forms of culture and art of expression, especially in Java and Bali, ranging from sculpture and carving (relief) in temples, dance, painting to performing arts such as wayang kulit and shadow puppets. In more recent times, the book Bharatayuddha has also been copied by the poet of the Surakarta Yasadipura palace into modern Javanese around the 18th century.
In the world of Indonesian popular literature, the Mahabharata story is also presented in a comic form which makes this story widely known among the common people. One of the most famous is the work of R.A. Kosasih.

Mahabharata Versions

In India there are two main versions of the Mahabharata in Sanskrit which are quite different from each other. These two versions are referred to by the terms "Northern Version" and "Southern Version". Usually the northern version is considered to be closer to the oldest version.

List of books

Mahābhārata is an epic story which is divided into eighteen books or often called Astadasaparwa. The series of books tells the chronology of events in the Mahābhārata story, from the story of the ancestors of the Pandavas and the Kauravas (Yayati, Yadu, Puru, Kuru, Duswanta, Sakuntala, Bharata) to the story of the arrival of the Pandavas in heaven.

Between 1919 and 1966, experts at the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune, compared many manuscripts of this epic originally from India and outside India to publish critical text edits of the Mahabharata. This text edit consists of 13,000 pages divided into 19 volumes. Then this edit is followed by Harivaṃsa in 2 volumes and 6 volumes of the index. This text editing is commonly referred to for studies on the Mahabharata. [1]
Background

The Mahabharata is a flashback story told by Resi Wesampayana to Emperor Janamejaya who failed to hold a snake sacrifice ceremony. In accordance with Janamejaya's request, the story is the story of the great kings who are in the lineage of Maharaja Yayati, Bharata, and Kuru, who are none other than the ancestors of Maharaja Janamejaya. Then Kuru brought down the kings of Hastinapura who became the main figures of the Mahabharata. They are Santanu, Chitrāngada, Wicitrawirya, Dretarastra, Pandu, Yudistira, Parikesit and Janamejaya.

The Kings of Ancient India
The Mahabharata gave many names to the great kings of Ancient India such as Bharata, Kuru, Parikesit (Parikshita), and Janamejaya. The Mahabharata is the great story of the descendants of Bharata, and Bharata is one of the kings who descended the main figures in the Mahabharata.


The story of Sang Bharata begins with the meeting of King Duswanta with Sakuntala. King Duswanta was a great king of Chandrawangsa of Yayati descent, married Sakuntala from the hermitage of Bagawan Kanwa, then descended Sang Bharata, the legendary king. The Bharata then conquered the land of Ancient India. After the conquest, his territory was called Bharatawarsha which means the territory of Maharaja Bharata (supposedly covering South Asia) [2].

The Bharata descended from Hasti, who later established a center of government called Hastinapura. The Hasti descended the Hastinapura Kings. From this family was born Sang Kuru, who ruled and purified a large area called Kurukshetra (located in the state of Haryana, North India). The Kuru descended from the Kuru Dynasty or the Kaurawa Dynasty. In that dynasty, Pratipa was born, who became the father of Prabu Santanu, the ancestor of the Pandavas and Korawa.

The relatives of the Kaurawa Dynasty (Kuru Dynasty) are the Yadava Dynasty, because both dynasties come from the same ancestor, namely Emperor Yayati, a knight from the Chandra Dynasty or Soma Dynasty, a descendant of the Pururawa. In the genealogy of the Yadava dynasty, King Basudeva was born, King of the Kingdom of Surasena, who later became the son of Krishna, who established the Kingdom of Dwaraka. The Krishna of the Yadava dynasty are cousins ​​of the Pandavas and the Korawa of the Kaurawa dynasty.

Prabu Santanu and his descendants
Prabu Santanu is a famous king of the lineage of Sang Kuru, originally from Hastinapura. He married Goddess Ganga who was cursed to come down to earth, but Goddess Ganga left him because the King broke the marriage vow. The King's relationship with Goddess Ganga had a child named Dewabrata or Bisma. After being abandoned by Dewi Gangga, Prabu Santanu finally became a widower.

A few years later, Prabu Santanu continued his married life by marrying Dewi Satyawati, a fishing princess. From his relationship, the King was the son of Citrānggada and Wicitrawirya. Citrānggada died at a young age in a battle, then he was replaced by his younger brother Wicitrawirya. Wicitrawirya also died at a young age and did not have time to have children. With the help of Resi Byasa, Wicitrawirya's two wives, Ambika and Ambalika, gave birth to a son, Pandu (from Ambalika) and Dretarastra (from Ambika).
Dretarastra was born blind, so the throne of Hastinapura was handed over to Pandu, his younger brother. Pandu married Kunti then Pandu married for the second time to Madrim, but due to Pandu's mistake when shooting an deer who was in love, the deer issued (Supata = Curse) that Pandu will no longer feel the relationship between husband and wife, and if he does, then The driver will die. The deer then died by changing into its original form, namely a pastor.

Then because of experiencing such a bad incident, Pandu then invited his two wives to beg the Almighty so that a child could be given. Then Batara the teacher sent Batara Dharma to fertilize Dewi Kunti so that the first child was born, namely Yudistira.

Then Batara Guru sent Batara Indra to fertilize Dewi Kunti so that Harjuna was born, then Batara Bayu was also sent to fertilize Dewi Kunti so that Bima was born, and finally, Batara Aswin was sent to fertilize Dewi Madrim, and Nakula and Sadewa were born.

The five sons of Pandu were known as Pandavas. Blind Dretarastra married Gandari, and had one hundred sons and one daughter known as the Kauravas. Pandu and Dretarastra have the youngest brother named Widura. Vidura had a son named Sanjaya, who had an inner eye so he could see the past, present, and future.

The Dretarastra, Pandu, and Widura families built the storyline of the Mahabharata. Pandavas and Kauravas are two groups with different characteristics but come from the same ancestor, namely Kuru and Bharata. The Kauravas (especially Duryodhana) were cunning and were always jealous of the Pandavas' strengths, while the Pandavas were calm and always patient when bullied by their cousins. The father of the Kauravas, namely Dretarastra, was very fond of his sons. This made him often instigated by his brother-in-law, Sangkuni, and his favorite son, Duryodhana, to let him carry out an evil plan to get rid of the Pandavas.

Once upon a time, Duryodhana invited Kunti and the Pandavas for a vacation. There they stayed in a house that had been provided by Duryodhana. At night, the house was set on fire. However, the Pandavas were saved by Bima so that they did not burn alive in the house. After saving themselves, the Pandavas and Kunti entered the forest. In the forest Bima meets rakshasa Hidimba and kills him, then marries his younger brother, rakshasi Hidimbi. From this marriage, Gatotkaca was born.

After passing through the jungle, the Pandavas passed through the Panchala Kingdom. There the news spread that the King of Drupada was holding a competition to fight for Dewi Dropadi. Because he joined the competition, but was rejected by Draupadi. The Pandavas also attended the contest, but they dressed like brahmins.

Pandavas took part in a competition to win five kinds of competitions, Yudistira to win the philosophy and state order competition, Arjuna to win the Arrow weapon competition, Bima won the Gada competition and Nakula - Sadewa to win the Sword weapon competition. The Pandavas managed to do well to win the competition.

Draupadi had to accept the Pandavas as husbands because according to his promise whoever could win the competition he made would be her husband even though he deviated from his wish, which was actually what only a Satriya wanted.

After that a fight broke out because the crowd was grumbling because the Brahmins were not supposed to participate in competitions. The Pandavas fought then escaped. When they got home, they told their mother that they had come with the results of begging. Their mother also ordered that the results be divided equally among all her siblings. However, to her surprise, she saw that her children brought not only the result of begging, but also a woman. Inevitably, Draupadi married the five Pandavas.

Dice game
Main article for this section is: Sabhaparwa
In order to avoid fierce fighting, the Kuru Kingdom was divided in two to be divided between the Pandavas and the Kauravas. The Kauravas ruled the main (central) Kuru Kingdom with the capital Hastinapura, while the Pandavas ruled the Kurujanggala Kingdom with the capital Indraprastha. Both Hastinapura and Indraprastha had magnificent palaces, and it was there that Duryodhana plunged into the pool which he thought was the floor, so that he became a mockery for Draupadi. This made him even more angry with the Pandavas.

To seize the wealth and kingdom of Yudhisthira, Duryodhana invited Yudhisthira to play dice based on Sangkuni's idea, this was actually done to trick the Pandavas by inviting Yudhisthira to play dice with bets. Yudistira, who likes to play dice, did not reject the invitation and was willing to come to Hastinapura.

At the time of the dice game, Sangkuni represented Duryodana as a dice dealer who had the power to cheat. At the start of the war weapons betting game, the game stakes continued to increase to the stakes of royal treasures, then soldiers were at stake, and until the peak of the Kingdom game was at stake, the Pandavas lost all property and the Pandava kingdom including brothers was also at stake and finally his wife Draupadi was made a bet.

In this incident, because Draupadi had already belonged to Duryodhana, Dursasana had pulled Draupadi's clothes because it had become Duryodhana's treasure since Yudhisthira lost to dice, but the effort did not succeed in removing Draupadi's clothes, because every time the clothes were opened underneath the clothes there were more clothes so the blessings were endless. occult help from Sri Krishna.


Because his wife was insulted, Bima vowed to kill Dursasana and drink his blood later. After pronouncing the oath, Dretarastra felt that calamity would befall his descendants, so he returned all of Yudhisthira's assets that had been staked.

Duryodhana, feeling disappointed that Dretarastra had returned all the property that would belong to him, held a dice game for the second time. This time, whoever loses must retire to the forest for 12 years, after that live in a year of incognito, and after that have the right to return to his kingdom. For the second time, Yudhisthira followed the game and once again he lost. Due to this defeat, the Pandavas were forced to leave their kingdom for 12 years and live in a period of incognito for a year.

After the period of exile ended and in accordance with the legal agreement, the Pandavas had the right to take back the kingdom led by Duryodhana. However Duryodhana was evil. He did not want to hand over the kingdom to the Pandavas, even as wide as the tip of a needle. This made the Pandavas run out of patience. Sri Kresna carried out a peaceful mission, but failed repeatedly. Finally, the fighting was inevitable.


Battle of Kurukshetra
The main articles for this section are: The War in Kurukshetra
The Pandavas tried to find allies and it got the help of forces from the Kingdom of Kekaya, Kingdom of Matsya, Kingdom of Pandya, Kingdom of Chola, Kingdom of Kerala, Kingdom of Magadha, Wangsa Yadawa, Kingdom of Dwaraka, and many more. In addition, the great knights in Bharatawarsha such as Drupada, Satyaki, Drestadyumna, Srikandi, Wirata, and others joined the Pandavas. Meanwhile, Duryodhana asked Bismillah to lead the Korawa army as well as appoint him as the highest commander of the Korawa army. Korawa was assisted by Resi Drona and his son Aswatama, the Korawa's sister-in-law Jayadrata, as well as teachers Krepa, Kretawarma, Salya, Sudaksina, Burisrawas, Bahlika, Sangkuni, Karna, and many more.
The battle lasted for a full 18 days. In that battle, many knights fell, such as Abhimanyu, Drona, Karna, Bisma, Gatotkaca, Irawan, King Wirata and his son, Bhagadatta, Susharma, Sangkuni, and many more. During those 18 days it was filled with bloodshed and horrific massacres. At the end of the eighteenth day, only ten knights survived the battle, they were: Five Pandavas, Yuyutsu, Satyaki, Aswatama, Krepa and Kretawarma.

Successor of the Kuru dynasty
After the war ended, Yudistira was crowned King Hastinapura. After ruling for some time, he handed over the throne to Arjuna's grandson, Parikesit. Later, Yudistira with the Pandavas and Dropadi climbed the Himalayan mountains as the final destination of their journey. There they died and reached heaven. Parikesit ruled the Kuru Kingdom fairly and wisely. He married Madrawati and had a son named Janamejaya. Janamejaya married Wapushtama (Bhamustiman) and had a son named Satanika. Satanika is the son of Aswamedhadatta. Aswamedhadatta and his descendants later led the Wuru Kuru Kingdom in Hastinapura.

(Garudatoday)


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